ANALYSIS-China's Zhoushan to go after Singapore marine hub's top billing - Reuters News 13-Dec-2018 07:00:00 AM
分析——中国舟山追赶新加坡国际海事基地的领先地位（路透社新闻2018.12.13 07:00:00 ）
●Top Asian refiner Sinopec relocates bunker hub to Zhoushan
●Top global oil merchant Vitol sets up shop in Zhoushan
●Zhoushan lobbying for tax changes to be more competitive
●Singapore dominance as bunker port still hard to beat
By Chen Aizhu and Roslan Khasawneh
记者 陈爱珠 Roslan Khasawneh
ZHOUSHAN, China/SINGAPORE, Dec 13 (Reuters) - China's port city of Zhoushan is planning to challenge Singapore's dominance of the multi-billion dollar shipping fuel industry, relying on proximity to some of the world's biggest ports and Beijing's support to give it an edge. It will be steep going. The port facilities in the cluster of islands around Zhoushan have annual marine fuel sales of 3.6 million tonnes, less than a tenth of the record 50.6 million tonnes of shipping or bunker fuel Singapore sold in 2017.
中国舟山，新加坡, 12月13日（路透社）——中国的港口城市舟山正在计划挑战新加坡在价值数十亿美元的船用燃料油市场中的主导地位, 依托它周边的一些世界上最大的港口，以及中国政府给予的支持等优势。这将是一个艰难的过程。目前舟山周边岛屿群的港口设施每年的船用燃料油销售量为360万吨,不到新加坡2017年创历史新高的5060万吨船用燃料油的十分之一。
Zhoushan, though, was ranked fourth in global container traffic in 2016, according to the World Shipping Council, and it sits 150 km (90 miles) from the world's biggest container port at Shanghai, and within a day's voyage of other major ports including Ningbo and Nanjing. Zhoushan wants to go after the fuelling business represented by this traffic, and many shippers and analysts expect it to mount the first serious challenge to Singapore in decades.It's not just bunkers. A thriving bunker market attracts valuable secondary businesses - shipping supplies, maintenance and repairs, insurance and other maritime financial services - worth billions of dollars more a year.
"With over 3 billion-tonnage freight handled by Zhoushan and nearby ports, that exceeds Singapore ... We shall not miss the vast market in front of our door," said Ying Zhongmin, head of policy and regulations at Zhoushan Free Trade Zone. "Singapore handled almost 630 million tonnes of cargo in 2017, with vessel arrivals totalling 2.8 billion tonnes, according to government data.Zhang Haichao, chairman and general manager of Sinopec Corp 600028.SS unit Sinopec Sales Co, said at an industry event in October that by 2030 Zhoushan's bunkering volumes will have risen to 30 million tonnes a year, in keeping with targets set by port authorities.
“舟山及附近港口的货物吞吐量超过30亿吨, 超过新加坡……”浙江自贸试验区政策法规局局长应仲民说：“我们不会错过门前广阔的市场。”根据政府数据, 2017年新加坡港口货物吞吐量为6.3亿吨,船舶进出港总吨位28亿吨。中国石化集团副总经理张海潮在10月份的一次行业活动中表示, 按照舟山当地政府设定的目标,到2030年,舟山的船用燃料油供应量将升至每年3000万吨。
Nearby, there are a half-dozen fuel producers, including the 400,000 barrels-per-day (bpd) Zhejiang Petrochemical Corp plant to be launched at year-end. Zhoushan could lure in oil and LNG tankers, dry-bulk carriers bringing raw materials from Australia, and container ships heading to the U.S. West Coast."Vessels calling on China close to Zhoushan and north of it, as well as Japan and (South) Korea, will definitely give it a close look," said Ashok Sharma, managing director of shipbroker BRS Baxi in Singapore. "Chinese vessels would find it particularly attractive, he said.
舟山附近有六个燃料油生产企业, 包括将于2018年底投产的日产40万桶的浙江石油化工有限公司。舟山可以吸引石油和液化天然气油轮、从澳大利亚运来原材料的干散货船以及前往美国西海岸的集装箱船。新加坡船舶经纪公司BRS Baxi董事总经理Ashok Sharma表示:" 停靠在舟山、中国北方及日本、韩国的船只肯定会对其进行密切关注。他说,中国的船只会觉得特别有吸引力。
CLEAN FUEL REGULATIONS
Zhoushan plans to take advantage of marine fuel regulations that will cap sulphur content in shipping fuel at 0.5 percent from 2020, down from 3.5 percent. The new International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules mean three-quarters of the 4 million barrels per day (bpd) of high-sulphur fuel oil (HSFO) now consumed by global shippers will shift to low-sulphur fuels like marine gasoil (MGO) and low-sulphur fuel oil (LSFO). (Full Story)
舟山计划利用国际航行船舶燃料规则, 将从2020年起将船用燃料油的硫含量限制在 0.5%。国际海事组织（IMO）的新规则意味着, 在目前全球航行船舶每天消耗的400万桶高硫燃料油中, 四分之三将转向低硫燃料, 如船用柴油 (MGO) 和低硫燃料油 (LSFO)。
While Singapore has three major refineries - owned by Royal Dutch Shell RDSa.AS, Exxon Mobil XOM.N and the joint-venture Singapore Refining Company - they are geared for high-value product exports and not marine fuels. Under the IMO rules, Singapore will have to import these fuels, including from producers in China and the Middle East, inflating costs.
新加坡有三家主要炼油厂——荷兰皇家壳牌，埃克森美孚和合资的新加坡炼油公司。但它们是为生产出口高价值产品而不是船用燃料油而设计的。根据国际海事组织的规定, 新加坡将不得不进口这些低硫船用燃料油, 包括从中国和中东的生产商进口, 从而推高成本。
"Chinese ports like Zhoushan will be closer to the source of production of the new compliant fuel," said Ralph Leszczynski, head of research at ship broker Banchero Costa in Singapore. "The pricing could potentially turn to Zhoushan's advantage."
"像舟山这样的中国港口将更接近新的合规船用燃料油的生产来源," 新加坡船只经纪公司Banchero Costa的研究主管拉尔夫·莱斯钦斯基（Ralph Leszczynski）"定价可能会转向舟山的优势。
Sinopec, Asia's biggest oil refiner, moved its global bunker fuel centre to Zhoushan from Beijing in May and is preparing to pump IMO-compliant fuel from 2019. (Full Story) Top global independent oil merchant Vitol VITOLV.UL has also set up a trade office in Zhoushan for bunkers and other oil products in a joint operation with Zhejiang Seaport Group, said Zhoushan government officials and industry sources. Vitol declined to comment.
作为亚洲最大的炼油企业, 中石化今年5月将其全球船用燃料油总部从北京迁往舟山, 并准备从2019年起供应符合 IMO 标准的燃料油。舟山政府官员和业内人士表示, 全球最大的独立油品贸易商——维多集团已经与浙江省海港集团联合在舟山设立了船用燃料油等油品的贸易办事处。维多拒绝对此发表评论。
While Zhoushan may chip away at some of Singapore's bunker market share, its success depends on factors such as the cost and efficiency of its fuelling infrastructure, where Singapore is unrivalled, BRS Baxi's Sharma said."Zhoushan will find it challenging to achieve the same standards and ease of doing business."
新加坡船舶经纪公司BRS Baxi的Ashok Sharma表示， 虽然舟山可能会抢占新加坡的部分船用燃料油市场份额, 但其成功与否取决于舟山加油基础设施的成本和效率等因素, 新加坡在这些基础设施中是具有显著优势的。"舟山将会发现，要想实现和新加坡同样的标准以及便利化是很有挑战性的。
HARD TO TOP
China has 11 licensed bunker suppliers, including state-run Sinopec and Chimbusco, and independents such as Herun Group and Zhoushan Seaport Group, all operating in Zhoushan. They are up against more than 50 outfits in Singapore, alongside the world's busiest shipping lane and supplying some of the cheapest marine fuel available. (Full Story)
目前中国有11家拥有执照的船用燃料油供应商, 包括国营的中石化、中船燃, 以及和润集团、舟山海港集团等地方供应商, 均在舟山运营。他们与新加坡拥有的50多家同行竞争, 与世界上最繁忙的航道并驾齐驱, 并提供一些最便宜的船用燃料油。
"Zhoushan is gaining some traction in competition to South Korea on bunker prices, but it still is quite a distance behind Singapore in terms of efficiency and infrastructure," said an executive with China's Nanjing Tanker Corp, which refuels some of its 65 vessels at the port. A ship can refuel in around six hours in Singapore, while in Zhoushan it can take much longer due to greater bureaucracy, according to industry participants.Ships take bunkers in Singapore because of its efficiency, transparency and strict standards, which translate into saved costs and time. (Full Story)
中国南京油轮公司(为其65艘船只的部分船只提供燃料)的一位高管表示: "舟山在与韩国的船用燃料油价格竞争中获得了一定的吸引力, 但在效率和基础设施方面仍落后于新加坡相当远。据业内人士介绍, 在新加坡,一艘船只可以在6个小时左右完成加油, 而在舟山可能需要更长的时间。船舶在新加坡加油是由于其效率、透明度和严格的标准,从而节省了成本和时间。
"The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore ... continues to implement and uphold high standards," said an MPA spokeswoman, citing the required use of mass flow meters for fuel oil deliveries from 2017, and the extension of that requirement to gasoil in mid-2019.
"新加坡海事和港务局...... 继续实施和维护高标准," MPA发言人说, 他说, 从2017年起, 供应船用燃料油需要使用质量流量计, 并在2019年年中将这一要求扩大到柴油。
Zhoushan was approved as a free trade zone in early 2017, and was the first Chinese city allowed to grant marine fuel licenses. In October this year, it announced a new import regulation on marine blending fuels, a move to serve a broader range of shippers' needs. (Full Story) Zhoushan has also asked the Ministry of Finance for a waiver on a consumption tax on bunker sales, and a rebate on value-added taxes for locally produced marine fuels, officials said.
舟山于2017年初获批自由贸易试验区, 是中国第一个获准颁发船用燃料油经营资质的城市。今年 10月, 又实施了一项新的船用燃料油混兑条例, 此举将满足更广泛的船公司需求。据有关官员介绍, 舟山还在争取财政部对船用燃料油实行税收优惠, 并对当地生产的船用燃料油实施出口退税。